Here is a fast fact on the off chance you have been living under a rock: technology has a great impact on almost every aspect of our lives. So, if we come across something with such an influence on our daily lives, the smart thing to do is to embrace it. Some have ‘embraced’ it more than others by learning how to communicate with computers, i.e., learning how to code.

Is coding difficult to learn?

Learning how to code is not difficult. However, like most skills or professions, you need effort and hard work to actually master and be great at coding.

How do I start learning to code?

There are a few steps you can take to learn how to code, like taking a coding course online, reading books on coding, watching tutorials, finding mentors and other coders, enrolling in a coding bootcamp program, etc.

While we still don’t know what the exact number of coding languages is, we can assume that there are hundreds of them. With that being said, we know that one might not learn all of the languages. But if you are asking yourself “What are the most popular coding languages?” you’ll find your answer in this article. So, come along and find your coding calling.

1. Java Script

javascript

JavaScript is one of the most popular computer languages. This programming language is essential for any web developer. It’s mostly used to enhance HTML pages and is commonly found embedded in HTML code. JavaScript as a language is an interpreted one, and as such, it doesn’t need to be compiled. Through JavaScript, many games and communication applications run directly in the browser build.

Benefits & Drawbacks

When we talk about the benefits of JavaScript, there are a few that we can include:

Speed 

JavaScript is agile because it can be run instantly within the client-side browser. JavaScript is unhindered by network calls to a backend server.

Popularity 

JavaScript is one of the most used coding languages on the web.

Simplicity 

It is quite uncomplicated to learn and implement.

Interoperability 

JavaScript collaborates well with other languages and is used in a wide variety of applications.

As for the disadvantages of JavaScript, they’re not that many in number, but they are a few that we could mention.

Client-Side Security

The code of JavaScript is visible on the computers of users, and in some instances, it may be exploited for malicious purposes.

Browser Support 

JavaScript is interpreted differently in different browsers. That’s why before it’s published, it needs to be run on various platforms.

Single Inheritance

Unfortunately, JavaScript supports single inheritance and not multiple inheritances.

 Key Features

  • Greater control
  • Platform independent
  • Validating User’s Input
  • Simple Client-side Calculations
  • Generating HTML Content
  • Detecting the User’s Browser and OS

Some common careers for JavaScript developers include:

  • Front End Web Developer
  • Web Application Developer
  • JavaScript Developer
  • UX Designer
  • Web Designer
  • UI Designer
  • Full-Stack Developer
  • DevOps Engineer

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for JavaScript developers is $97,315.

2. PHP

php

PHP stands for the recursive acronym for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. It’s one of the best programming languages to learn. PHP is a widely-used general-purpose scripting language suited especially for web development while also being embedded in HTML.

Benefits & Drawbacks

PHP has certainly many advantages, and we’re going to list them here:

No need to write additional code

PHP programmers write complex and lengthy code while adding features or functionality to a website.  The PHP frameworks reduce coding time by providing code generation features.

Works efficiently with databases 

PHP frameworks make it possible for frameworks to work with multiple relational databases.

Many web development tasks are automated

The PHP tools and functions help developers to automate common web development tasks like URL mapping, session management, and authentication.

Powerful library support 

Functional modules like PDF, graphs are easily found.

As for the disadvantages, PHP too has some:

Unsecure programming language 

Being open-sourced, PHP is considered to be one of the most unsecured programming languages.

Not suitable for large applications 

PHP isn’t a modular language and, as such, isn’t suggested to be used to program huge applications. Also, it can’t support a large number of apps.

Key Features

  • Simple & Easy
  • Real-Time Access Monitoring
  • Error Reporting
  • Platform Independent
  • Case Sensitive
  • Loosely Typed Language
  • Flexible

Some common careers for PHP developers include:

  • Command-line scripting
  • Server-side scripting
  • Database concepts
  • Desktop Application Development
  • Web Development
  • Compiler Based Applications
  • Computer Programming

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for PHP developers is $94,266.

3. R

R language

R is one of the most popular coding languages. It’s used in statistical computing, scientific research, and data analytics. Statisticians, researchers, data analysts, marketers wouldn’t do what they do daily without R. This language is used to retrieve, clean, visualize, analyze, and present data.

Benefits & Drawbacks

Here are a few benefits of R coding language:

Open-source 

As an open-source programming language, you can use R without having the need for a fee or a license.

A large variety of libraries

R has large community support, and this has resulted in a large collection of libraries. Its libraries are graphical, and they support and enhance the R development environment.

Data cleansing, data wrangling, and web scraping

R collects data from the internet through means like web scraping while also performing data cleansing. Not to mention the data wrangling it does.

Powerful graphics

The R libraries are extensive, and as such, they can produce quality graphs and visualizations.

As for the drawbacks of R, there are some that we can mention.

Slow

The R programs and functions are spread across different packages. This impacts R speed.

Poor security

Unfortunately, R lacks basic security measures. So, you know that it’s not that safe to build web-pages.

Key Features

  • Cross-platform support
  • Wide packages
  • Large standard library
  • Extremely compatible
  • Open-source
  • Fast calculation

Some common careers for R developers include:

  • R Programmer
  • Data Scientist
  • Data Analyst
  • Data Architect
  • Data Visualization Analyst
  • Geo Statician
  • Database Administrator
  • Quantitative Analyst with R

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for R programmers is $72,560.

4. C++

c++

We can easily say that C++ (originally called C with classes) is one of the oldest and most efficient coding languages still part of the programming realm. This cross-platform, general-purpose, object-oriented programming language is used to create high-performance applications. C++ is the language behind everything from computer games to mathematical simulations

Benefits & Drawbacks

C++ has a number of benefits. Let’s take a look at them.

Portability

C++ makes it possible for the user to run the same program on different operating systems.

Multi-paradigm 

C++ is a multi-paradigm coding language. Three paradigms of C++ are generic, imperative, and object-oriented.

Low-level manipulation 

C++ allows low-level data manipulation at a certain level.

Scalability 

C++ is capable of running on all types of data, regardless if they’re a small or a large scale of data.

Large community support 

C++ is one of the most used coding languages, and as such, has a large community that supports it by bringing out online courses and lectures.

While it would be great for something to only have benefits. This isn’t possible. So, here are a few disadvantages of C++.

Absence of garbage collection 

C++ doesn’t support garbage collection.

Security issues 

C++ isn’t secure because of the global variable, friend function, and the pointers it has.

Lack of Built-in Threads 

C++ doesn’t support any kind of built-in threads.

Key Features

  • Syntax based language
  • Pointers
  • Memory management
  • Rich library
  • Platform dependent
  • Powerful & fast

Some common careers for C++ developers include:

  • Junior Programmer
  • Senior Programmer
  • Software Developer
  • Quality Analyst
  • Game Programmer
  • Software Developer Engineer
  • C++ Analyst
  • Programming Architect
  • Database Developer

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for C++ developers is $103,208.

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5. C

C-language

C language can be a good foundation for all those that want to learn how to program. This language was among the first programming languages ever developed, and it still continues to be considered as the foundation for many modern coding languages. C runs on any type of device is often used to program embedded devices in automobiles and medical devices.

Benefits & Drawbacks

C, as a programming language, has several advantages when used. Let’s see what those advantages are.

Built-in functions

In ANSI C, the C programming language has only 32 keywords that have built-in functions. These functions can be quite helpful in program building with C.

The foundation of other programming languages

If you’re just starting with programming, then you definitely will start with C, as it’s considered to be the fundamental coding language.  A number of other programming languages are built with the base of the C language.

Quality to extend itself 

C has the ability to extend itself. This ability comes as a result of the C language having its own set of functions in the C library. You can also add your own functions to the C Standard Library, and the code becomes simpler.

Dynamic memory-allocation

Thanks to the dynamic memory allocation, you’re free to allocate memory at run time. This means that even if you don’t know how much memory is required by objects in your program, you can still run it in C and assign the memory simultaneously.

Just like other coding languages, C too has a couple of disadvantages.

OOPs concept

Even though C is a broad programming language, it doesn’t support the OOPs (Inheritance, Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Abstraction, Data Hiding) concept.

Concept of namespace

A namespace allows the programmer to reuse the names in different contexts. C doesn’t implement the concept of THE namespace, and, as a result, one cannot use a variable with the same name.

Key Features

  • Portability
  • Easy to extend
  • Statistically type
  • Fast and efficient
  • Procedural language
  • Rich set of built-in operators
  • Rich libraries

Some common careers for C developers include:

  • Junior Programmer
  • Senior Programmer
  • Software Developer
  • Quality Analyst
  • Game Programmer
  • Software Developer Engineer
  • C Analyst
  • Programming Architect
  • Database Developer

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for C developers is $103,208.

6. C#

c-sharp

Just like C++, C# is an object-oriented coding language. However, this coding language came after C++. This programming language was created with the aim to combine the computing power of C++ with the programming ease of Visual basic. C# is certainly the go-to language for Windows application development and Microsoft and not only. If the extension of .Net called Mono is used, then C# can also be used for mobile devices and video game consoles.

Benefits & Drawbacks

C# benefits are numerous. Let’s take a look at them.

Fast speed 

C# is a very fast coding language, and the execution time is too quick.

Scalable and updatable 

C# is a scalable and updatable coding language. However, if you want to update it, you have to kill your files and update them with the new one.

Rich library

The rich library of C# language provides a lot of inbuilt functions that fasten the development process.

Type-safe 

C# is a type-safe coding language. This means that only the memory location is accessible. This improves the program’s security.

Cost-benefit

The cost of maintenance of this language is quite lower when compared to other coding languages.

C# has a few disadvantages too. We listed them down below.

Flexibility

C# is based on Microsoft .Net framework, and this makes it not as flexible as it could be.

Not easy to make changes in the C# code

If you need to change anything in the C# written code, then you need to compile it first.

Key Features

  • Simple
  • Object-oriented
  • Scalable and updateable
  • Component oriented
  • Structured programming language
  • Interoperability

Some common careers for C# developers include:

  • Senior Software Engineer
  • Tools Programmer
  • Senior C# Developer
  • C#.Net Developer
  • Software Engineer
  • Full Stack Engineer
  • .NET Developer
  • Senior Unity Engineer

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for C# developers is $94,356.

7. Java

java

Java is one of the most known and widely used programming languages out there. It’s amongst the most used coding languages for Android smartphone applications. Java is an object-oriented, class-based programming language and is used to program a number of applications of all devices, starting with mobile applications, desktop applications, web applications, games, database connections, and other applications.

Benefits & Drawbacks

Java, as a programming language, has countless advantages for its users. You can find those advantages down below.

Simple 

Java is easy to learn and understand. Its syntax is straightforward, easy to learn, maintain, and understand.

Object-oriented programming languages 

As an object-oriented coding language, Java enhances flexibility and reusability of the code, increases safety by combining the data binding and functions into a single entity.

Security 

Java is quite secure. It can reduce security threats and risks by avoiding the use of explicit pointers. Java has a security manager for each application that allows defining the access rules for classes.

As for the disadvantages, they are:

Memory management 

Java garbage collection manages memory. Whenever the garbage collector functions, it can affect the performance of the application.

Performance 

Java as a coding language is quite memory-consuming and slower in performance compared to other natively compiled languages.

Key Features

  • Portable
  • Object-oriented
  • Interpreted
  • Architecture neutral
  • Multithreaded
  • Secure
  • Simple

Some common careers for Java developers include:

  • Junior Developer
  • Senior Developer
  • Java Architect
  • Java Web Developer
  • Java Android Developer
  • Java EE Developer
  • Freelancing

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for Java developers is $92,656.

8. Python

python

Python is a high-level, interpreted, object-oriented coding language. It has dynamic semantics. This programming language is simple, with an easy-to-learn syntax. The reason why many programmers fall in love with it is that it can increase productivity. It supports modules and packages, which in turn encourages program modularity and code reuse.

Benefits & Drawbacks

Python has a myriad of benefits. We talked about those benefits down below.

Improved productivity 

With the simplicity of the Python coding language, developers won’t have a problem with it. Instead, they can focus on solving the problem.

Easy to write, read & learn 

The syntax of Python is considered to be English-like syntax. This makes  Python way easier to read and understand the code.

Free & Open-Source 

Python’s open-source license is OSI approved. For this reason, it’s free to use and distribute. You have the right to download, modify, and distribute your version of Python.

Vast Libraries Support 

Python has a large standard library. It has almost all the functions needed for any kind of task. In that way, you won’t need to depend on external libraries.

Even though there are many benefits one can gain from using python, it also has a few disadvantages. Find those disadvantages down below.

Not memory efficient 

Python usually uses a large amount of memory. At times, this can be a disadvantage because many applications might require memory optimization.

Database access

The access layer of Python’s database is quite underdeveloped compared to other popular technologies.

Runtime errors

Being a dynamically typed language, the data type can change anytime. That’s why it can lead to runtime errors.

Key Features

  • Easy to code
  • Free and open source
  • Object-oriented language
  • Portable
  • Free and open source
  • Integrated
  • Interpreted

Some common careers for Python developers include:

  • Web Developer
  • Python Developer
  • Software Engineer
  • Data Analyst
  • Data Scientist
  • Machine Learning Engineer
  • Quality Assurance Engineer
  • Product Manager

According to the data by Glassdoor, the median annual salary for Python developers is $94,678.

There you go, guys, the list of the eight most popular coding languages is on your hands. Make use of this list and get into the world of the programming that you love.